Archlinux installation notes

KEYBOARD

For slovenian keyboard

# loadkeys slovene

PARTITION

BIOS/GPT

Bios motherboard with gpt partition scheme

Use tools like parted, gdisk.

Prepare partitions

Gdisk

# gdisk /dev/sda
Create small 1-2Mb partition for bios (code: EF02)
Create small 1 Gb partition for BOOT (code: 8300)
Create swap partition in the size of RAM or at least 2Gb (code: 8200)
Create root partition 40Gb
Create home partition from the rest of the disk space

Format partitions (mkfs. , mkswap, swapon)

# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda2 BOOT
# mkswap /dev/sda3 SWAP
# swapon /dev/sda3
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda4 ROOT
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda5 HOME

EFI/GPT

EFI motherboard with GPT partition scheme.

Prepare partitions

# gdisk
# gdisk /dev/sda

Create small 1 Gb partition for EFI (code: EF00)
Create swap partition in the size of RAM or at least 2Gb (code: 8200)
Create root partition 40Gb (it could be smaller)
Create home partition from the rest of the disk size.

You could create separate partitions (VAR, OPT).

Format partitions

# mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sda1 EFI
# mkswap /dev/sda3 SWAP
# swapon /dev/sda3
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda4 ROOT
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda5 HOME

Mount partitions (root, boot, home)

# mount /dev/sda4 /mnt
# mkdir /mnt/{boot,home}
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot
# mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/home

Base system installation

# pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel

Create mount points in fstab

# genfstab -U /mnt > /mnt/etc/fstab

CHROOT

# arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash

Install extra programs with pacman

# pacman -S vim dhclient iw wpa_supplicant dialog firefox chromium gedit nautilus vlc terminator thunderbird pssh x11-ssh-askpass dunst rednotebook

Define/configure locale settings

# vim /etc/locale.gen
uncomment your default language (for example en_US.UTF-8)
# locale-gen
# vim /etc/locale.conf
LANG=en_US.UTF-8
# vim /etc/vconsole.conf
KEYMAP=slovene

TIME configuration

# tzselect
# ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Ljubljana /etc/localtime
# hwclock --systohc --utc

NTP or CHRONY

NTP daemon

# pacman -S ntp
# vim /etc/ntp.conf
# sysctl enable ntpd

CHRONY
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Chrony

# pacman -S chrony
echo "1 SHA1 HEX:$(tr -d -c '[:xdigit:]' < /dev/urandom | head -c 40)" > /etc/chrony.keys
# chmod 640 /etc/chrony.keys
# vim /etc/chrony.conf
pool arch.pool.ntp.org iburst
pool arch.pool.ntp.org offline
server offline
server offline
server offline
maxupdateskew 5
driftfile /var/lib/chrony/drift
keyfile /etc/chrony.keys
rtconutc
rtcsync
# systemctl restart chrony
# systemctl enable chrony

INITRAMFS

# mkinitcpio -p linux

Install/configure BOOTLOADER

BIOS/GPT

# pacman -S grub
# grub-install --recheck /dev/sda
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

UEFI/GPT

# bootctl install
# vim /boot/loader/entries/arch.conf
title Arch Linux
linux /vmlinuz-linux
initrd /initramfs-linux.img
options root=/dev/sda4 rw
# vim /boot/loader/loader.conf
timeout 3
default arch
editor 1 (after successful reboot change to 0, for security reasons)

EFI Viewer/Manager

# pacman -S efibootmgr
# efibootmgr -v

HOSTNAME

# echo newhostname > /etc/hostname
# vim /etc/hosts
 
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost newhostname
::1 localhost.localdomain localhost newhostname

Define ROOT PASSWORD

# passwd

EXIT FROM CHROOT MODE

 Ctrl + D

RESTART PC

# reboot

ADD FIRST USERS

# useradd -m -G wheel -s /bin/bash newuser
# passwd newuser

YAOURT

# pacman -S wget git curl lsof
 
$ git clone https://aur.archlinux.org/package-query.git
Cloning into 'package-query'...
remote: Counting objects: 16, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (16/16), done.
remote: Total 16 (delta 0), reused 16 (delta 0)
Unpacking objects: 100% (16/16), done.
Checking connectivity... done.
 
$ cd package-query
$ makepkg -si
$ cd ..
 
$ git clone https://aur.archlinux.org/yaourt.git
Cloning into 'yaourt'...
remote: Counting objects: 14, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (11/11), done.
remote: Total 14 (delta 3), reused 14 (delta 3)
Unpacking objects: 100% (14/14), done.
Checking connectivity... done.
 
$ cd yaourt
$ makepkg -si
$ cd ..
 
$ rehash

XSERVER

# pacman -S xorg-server xorg-xrandr xorg-xrdb xautolock xorg-xinit
$ yaourt -S xf86-video-ati mesa-libgl mesa-vdpau (for radeon video cards)
$ yaourt -S xf86-video-intel (for intel video cards)

SOUND

# pacman -S pulseaudio pulseaudio-alsa alsa-utils
$ yaourt -S cmus

SUDO

# pacman -S sudo

Run visudo and uncomment wheel group.
Add newuser to wheel group.

ZSH (shell)

https://github.com/robbyrussell/oh-my-zsh

# pacman -S zsh
$ sh -c "$(wget https://raw.github.com/robbyrussell/oh-my-zsh/master/tools/install.sh -O -)"

ENCRYPT HOME DIRECTORY

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/ECryptfs#Encrypting_a_home_directory

$ yaourt -S ecryptfs-utils
# modprobe ecryptfs
# ecryptfs-migrate-home -u newuser

Login as new user

use README for help

remove temporary map /home/newuser.LJHFLAHL

PAM-a ecrypt configuration

# vim /etc/pam.d/system-auth
 
Open /etc/pam.d/system-auth and after the line containing auth required pam_unix.so add:
auth required pam_ecryptfs.so unwrap
Next, above the line containing password required pam_unix.so insert:
password optional pam_ecryptfs.so
And finally, after the line session required pam_unix.so add:
session optional pam_ecryptfs.so

I3 window manager

# pacman -S i3-wm i3lock i3status dmenu
$ vim .i3/config
# This file has been auto-generated by i3-config-wizard(1).
# It will not be overwritten, so edit it as you like.
#
# Should you change your keyboard layout some time, delete
# this file and re-run i3-config-wizard(1).
#
 
# i3 config file (v4)
#
# Please see http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html for a complete reference!
 
# Windows key
set $mod Mod4
 
# set $mod Mod1 <-- alt
 
# Font for window titles. Will also be used by the bar unless a different font
# is used in the bar {} block below.
font pango:monospace 8
 
# This font is widely installed, provides lots of unicode glyphs, right-to-left
# text rendering and scalability on retina/hidpi displays (thanks to pango).
font pango:DejaVu Sans Mono 8
 
# Before i3 v4.8, we used to recommend this one as the default:
# font -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--13-120-75-75-C-70-iso10646-1
# The font above is very space-efficient, that is, it looks good, sharp and
# clear in small sizes. However, its unicode glyph coverage is limited, the old
# X core fonts rendering does not support right-to-left and this being a bitmap
# font, it doesn’t scale on retina/hidpi displays.
 
# Use Mouse+$mod to drag floating windows to their wanted position
floating_modifier $mod
 
# start a terminal
bindsym $mod+Return exec i3-sensible-terminal
 
# kill focused window
bindsym $mod+Shift+q kill
 
# start dmenu (a program launcher)
bindsym $mod+d exec dmenu_run
# There also is the (new) i3-dmenu-desktop which only displays applications
# shipping a .desktop file. It is a wrapper around dmenu, so you need that
# installed.
# bindsym $mod+d exec --no-startup-id i3-dmenu-desktop
 
# change focus
bindsym $mod+j focus left
bindsym $mod+k focus down
bindsym $mod+l focus up
bindsym $mod+ccaron focus right
 
# alternatively, you can use the cursor keys:
bindsym $mod+Left focus left
bindsym $mod+Down focus down
bindsym $mod+Up focus up
bindsym $mod+Right focus right
 
# move focused window
bindsym $mod+Shift+j move left
bindsym $mod+Shift+k move down
bindsym $mod+Shift+l move up
bindsym $mod+Shift+ccaron move right
 
# alternatively, you can use the cursor keys:
bindsym $mod+Shift+Left move left
bindsym $mod+Shift+Down move down
bindsym $mod+Shift+Up move up
bindsym $mod+Shift+Right move right
 
# split in horizontal orientation
bindsym $mod+h split h
 
# split in vertical orientation
bindsym $mod+v split v
 
# enter fullscreen mode for the focused container
bindsym $mod+f fullscreen toggle
 
# change container layout (stacked, tabbed, toggle split)
bindsym $mod+s layout stacking
bindsym $mod+w layout tabbed
bindsym $mod+e layout toggle split
 
# toggle tiling / floating
bindsym $mod+Shift+space floating toggle
 
# change focus between tiling / floating windows
bindsym $mod+space focus mode_toggle
 
# focus the parent container
bindsym $mod+a focus parent
 
# focus the child container
#bindsym $mod+d focus child
 
# Name the workspaces
set $tag1 "1: term"
set $tag2 "2: www"
set $tag3 "3: mail"
set $tag4 "4: edit"
set $tag5 "5: nautilus"
set $tag6 "6: virtual"
set $tag7 "7: music"
set $tag8 "8: video"
set $tag9 "9: tor"
set $tag10 "10: term"
 
# assignment apps to a named workspace
#assign [class="^Terminator$"] → "1: term"
assign [class="^Tor Browser$"]"2: www"
assign [class="^Firefox$"]"2: www"
assign [class="^Chromium$"]"2: www"
assign [class="^Thunderbird$"]"3: mail"
assign [class="^Gedit$"]"4: edit"
assign [class="^libreoffice-startcenter$"]"4: edit"
assign [class="^Nautilus$"]"5: nautilus"
assign [class="^VirtualBox$"]"6: virtual"
assign [class="^Clementine$"]"7: music"
assign [class="^Vlc$"]"8: video"
assign [class="^Transmission-gtk$"]"9: tor"
 
# switch to workspace
bindsym $mod+1 workspace $tag1
bindsym $mod+2 workspace $tag2
bindsym $mod+3 workspace $tag3
bindsym $mod+4 workspace $tag4
bindsym $mod+5 workspace $tag5
bindsym $mod+6 workspace $tag6
bindsym $mod+7 workspace $tag7
bindsym $mod+8 workspace $tag8
bindsym $mod+9 workspace $tag9
bindsym $mod+0 workspace $tag10
 
# move focused container to workspace
bindsym $mod+Shift+1 move container to workspace $tag1
bindsym $mod+Shift+2 move container to workspace $tag2
bindsym $mod+Shift+3 move container to workspace $tag3
bindsym $mod+Shift+4 move container to workspace $tag4
bindsym $mod+Shift+5 move container to workspace $tag5
bindsym $mod+Shift+6 move container to workspace $tag6
bindsym $mod+Shift+7 move container to workspace $tag7
bindsym $mod+Shift+8 move container to workspace $tag8
bindsym $mod+Shift+9 move container to workspace $tag9
bindsym $mod+Shift+0 move container to workspace $tag10
 
# reload the configuration file
bindsym $mod+Shift+c reload
# restart i3 inplace (preserves your layout/session, can be used to upgrade i3)
bindsym $mod+Shift+r restart
# exit i3 (logs you out of your X session)
bindsym $mod+Shift+e exec "i3-nagbar -t warning -m 'You pressed the exit shortcut. Do you really want to exit i3? This will end your X session.' -b 'Yes, exit i3' 'i3-msg exit'"
 
# resize window (you can also use the mouse for that)
mode "resize" {
 # These bindings trigger as soon as you enter the resize mode
 
 # Pressing left will shrink the window’s width.
 # Pressing right will grow the window’s width.
 # Pressing up will shrink the window’s height.
 # Pressing down will grow the window’s height.
 bindsym j resize shrink width 10 px or 10 ppt
 bindsym k resize grow height 10 px or 10 ppt
 bindsym l resize shrink height 10 px or 10 ppt
 bindsym ccaron resize grow width 10 px or 10 ppt
 
 # same bindings, but for the arrow keys
 bindsym Left resize shrink width 10 px or 10 ppt
 bindsym Down resize grow height 10 px or 10 ppt
 bindsym Up resize shrink height 10 px or 10 ppt
 bindsym Right resize grow width 10 px or 10 ppt
 
 # back to normal: Enter or Escape
 bindsym Return mode "default"
 bindsym Escape mode "default"
}
 
bindsym $mod+r mode "resize"
 
# Start i3bar to display a workspace bar (plus the system information i3status
# finds out, if available)
#bar {
# status_command i3status
#}
#
bar {
 font -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--13-120-75-75-C-70-iso10646-1
 font pango:DejaVu Sans Mono 8
 
 colors {
 # Whole color settings
 background #000000
 statusline #ffffff
 separator #666666
 
 # Type border background font
 focused_workspace #008fff #007fff #ffffff
 active_workspace #333333 #5f676a #ffffff
 inactive_workspace #333333 #222222 #888888
 urgent_workspace #aa0000 #990000 #ffffff
 }
 # i3bar position
 position top
 # Using custom i3status.conf
 status_command i3status -c ~/.i3/i3status.conf
}
# floating programs #
#for_window [instance="torbrowser"] floating enable
###
#
###################################
# after 5 min lock screen 
#exec --no-startup-id xset dpms 600 
#
exec --no-startup-id xautolock -time 5 -locker "i3lock -u -t -e -c 000000 -i ~/Pictures/Ozadja/lock5.png -n" &
 
##################
# Startup programs
#
# setup background
exec --no-startup-id feh --bg-fill ~/Pictures/Ozadja/wall3.jpg
# start network manager
exec --no-startup-id nm-applet
# setup slovenian keyboard
exec --no-startup-id setxkbmap -layout si
# za pravilno delovanje jave
exec --no-startup-id wmname LG3D &
# setup displays
#exec ~/.i3/detect_displays.sh
 
 
######################################
# i3lock shutdown, reboot, lock screen
set $Locker i3lock -u -t -e -c 000000 -i ~/Pictures/Ozadja/lock5.png -n && sleep 1
 
set $mode_system System (l) lock, (e) logout, (s) suspend, (h) hibernate, (r) reboot, (Shift+s) shutdown
mode "$mode_system" {
 bindsym l exec --no-startup-id $Locker, mode "default"
 bindsym e exec --no-startup-id i3-msg exit, mode "default"
 bindsym s exec --no-startup-id $Locker && systemctl suspend, mode "default"
 bindsym h exec --no-startup-id $Locker && systemctl hibernate, mode "default"
 bindsym r exec --no-startup-id systemctl reboot, mode "default"
 bindsym Shift+s exec --no-startup-id systemctl poweroff -i, mode "default" 
 
 # back to normal: Enter or Escape
 bindsym Return mode "default"
 bindsym Escape mode "default"
}
 
bindsym $mod+Pause mode "$mode_system" 
######################################
#
# pulse audio volume control
#bindsym XF86AudioLowerVolume exec /usr/bin/pactl set-sink-volume 0 -- '-5%'
#bindsym XF86AudioRaiseVolume exec /usr/bin/pactl set-sink-volume 0 -- '+5%'
#bindsym XF86AudioMute exec /usr/bin/pactl set-sink-volume 0 0
#bindsym XF86Launch1 exec /usr/bin/pactl play-sample that_was_easy
#bindsym XF86MonBrightnessUp exec /usr/bin/xbacklight -inc 10
#bindsym XF86MonBrightnessDown exec /usr/bin/xbacklight -dec 5
$ vim .i3/i3status.conf
 
# i3status configuration file.
# see "man i3status" for documentation.
 
# It is important that this file is edited as UTF-8.
# The following line should contain a sharp s:
# ß
# If the above line is not correctly displayed, fix your editor first!
 
general {
 output_format = "i3bar"
 colors = true
 interval = 5
}
 
order += "cpu_usage"
order += "cpu_temperature 0"
#order += "ipv6"
order += "disk /home"
#order += "run_watch DHCP"
#order += "run_watch VPN"
#order += "wireless _first_"
order += "ethernet _first_"
#order += "battery 0"
#order += "load"
order += "volume master"
order += "tztime local"
 
wireless _first_ {
 format_up = "Wifi: (%quality at %essid, %bitrate) %ip"
 format_down = "W: down"
}
 
ethernet _first_ {
 # if you use %speed, i3status requires root privileges
 format_up = "Eth: %ip (%speed)"
 format_down = "Eth: down"
}
 
battery 0 {
 format = "Bat: %status %percentage %remaining"
}
 
#battery 0 {
# format = "%status %percentage %remaining %emptytime"
# format_down = "No battery"
# status_chr = "⚇ CHR""
# status_bat = "⚡ BAT"
# status_full = "☻ FULL"
# path = "/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/uevent"
# low_threshold = 10
#}
 
cpu_temperature 0 {
 format = "CPU Temp: %degrees °C"
 path = "/sys/devices/platform/coretemp.0/hwmon/hwmon1/temp1_input"
}
 
cpu_usage {
 format = "CPU: %usage"
}
 
run_watch DHCP {
 pidfile = "/var/run/dhclient*.pid"
}
 
run_watch VPN {
 pidfile = "/var/run/vpnc/pid"
}
 
tztime local {
 format = "%d-%m-%Y %H:%M:%S"
}
 
load {
 format = "%1min"
}
 
disk "/home" {
 format = "Home: %avail free"
}
 
volume master {
 format = "♪: %volume"
 format_muted = "♪: muted (%volume)"
 device = "default"
 mixer = "Master"
 mixer_idx = 0
}

FONTS

# pacman -S ttf-dejavu ttf-ubuntu-font-family ttf-ms-fonts(for winbox)

NETWORK MANAGER

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/NetworkManager#Configuration

# pacman -S networkmanager networkmanager-openvpn
# systemctl enable NetworkManager.service
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org.freedesktop.NetworkManager.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/NetworkManager.service.
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/NetworkManager.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/NetworkManager.service.
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org.freedesktop.nm-dispatcher.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/NetworkManager-dispatcher.service.
# pacman -S polkit-gnome
# vim /etc/group
network:x:90:newuser pre># vim /etc/polkit-1/rules.d/50-org.freedesktop.NetworkManager.rules
 
polkit.addRule(function(action, subject) {
if (action.id.indexOf("org.freedesktop.NetworkManager.") == 0 && subject.isInGroup("network")) {
return polkit.Result.YES;
}
});

LAPTOP (hibernate laptop at 5% of the battery life

# vim /etc/udev/rules.d/99-lowbat.rules
 
# Suspend the system when battery level drops to 5% or lower
SUBSYSTEM=="power_supply", ATTR{status}=="Discharging", ATTR{capacity}=="[0-5]", RUN+="/usr/bin/systemctl hibernate"

TOUCHPAD

# vim /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/50-synaptics.conf
Section "InputClass"
 Identifier "touchpad"
 Driver "synaptics"
 MatchIsTouchpad "on"
 Option "TapButton1" "1"
 Option "TapButton2" "2"
 Option "TapButton3" "3"
 Option "VertEdgeScroll" "on"
 Option "VertTwoFingerScroll" "on"
 Option "HorizEdgeScroll" "on"
 Option "HorizTwoFingerScroll" "on"
 Option "CircularScrolling" "on"
 Option "CircScrollTrigger" "2"
 Option "EmulateTwoFingerMinZ" "40"
 Option "EmulateTwoFingerMinW" "8"
 Option "CoastingSpeed" "0"
 Option "FingerLow" "35"
 Option "FingerHigh" "40"
EndSection

VIRTUALIZATION

VIRTUALBOX

# pacman -S virtualbox gksu
$ yaourt -S virtualbox-ext-oracle
# vim /etc/modules-load.d/virtualbox.conf
vboxdrv
vboxnetflt
vboxnetadp
vboxpci
$ sudo gpasswd -a newuser vboxusers
Adding user newuser to group vboxusers

LIBVIRT (KVM)

$ yaourt -S ebtables bridge-utils dnsmasq qemu virt-viewer
$ yaourt -S libguestfs (tools for edit qcow2 images)

Define storage pool
example: directory on external usb drive

# virsh pool-define-as usb dir - - - - /run/media/newuser/141226ea-ea1c-4d93-aa2a-dfc0ed87ebc8/VM

Import new image

$ virt-install \
--name servername \
--memory 1024 \
--disk /run/media/newuser/141226ea-ea1c-4d93-aa2a-dfc0ed87ebc8/VM/eduroam2.img \
--import

NESTED VIRTUALIZATION

# vim /etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf
options kvm_intel nested=1

PICTURE VIEWERS/EDITORS

$ yaourt -S shutter gimp feh

RDESKTOP (remotely manage windows computers)

 $ yaourt -S rdesktop

OFFICE

$ yaourt -S libreoffice-still

PDF reader

$ yaourt -S evince

NETWORK TOOLS

$ yaourt -S dnsutils whois ipcalc wireshark-cli nmap minicom net-tools
For wireshark ...
# gpasswd -a newuser wireshark
  Adding user newuser to group wireshark
# newgrp wireshark

DISK test tools

$ yaourt -S smartmontools

PRINTERS

$ yaourt -S cups cups-pdf
# systemctl start org.cups.cupsd.service
# systemctl enable org.cups.cupsd.service
 Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/printer.target.wants/org.cups.cupsd.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/org.cups.cupsd.service.
 Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/sockets.target.wants/org.cups.cupsd.socket to /usr/lib/systemd/system/org.cups.cupsd.socket.
 Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/org.cups.cupsd.path to /usr/lib/systemd/system/org.cups.cupsd.path.

From webpage http://localhost:631, we can add new printers

LCMC – cluster administration

$ yaourt -S jre7-openjdk lcmc

ZIP

$ yaourt -S file-roller p7zip unrar cdrkit

ANTIVIRUS

$ yaourt -S clamav
# touch /var/lib/clamav/clamd.sock
# chown clamav:clamav /var/lib/clamav/clamd.sock
# systemctl restart clamd.service

DOS TOOLS

$ yaourt -S dosfstools

WINE

# vim /etc/pacman.conf (uncomment)
[multilib]
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
 
$ yaourt -Syu
 
$ yaourt -S wine winetricks

FLASHPLAYER

$ yaourt -S flashplugin

TORRENT CLIENTS

$ yaourt -S transmission-cli deluge

I2P ANONYMOUS SERVICE DAEMON

 $ yaourt -S i2p
 $ sudo systemctl enable i2prouter.service
 Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/i2prouter.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/i2prouter.service.
 $ sudo systemctl start i2prouter.service

It works in firefox.

PASSWORD GENERATOR

$ yaourt -S apg

GPG SIGNATURE PROBLEMs
https://wiki.manjaro.org/index.php/Pacman_troubleshooting#.22Failed_to_commit_transaction_.28invalid_or_corrupted_package.29.22_Error

Solution:

# pacman-key --init
# pacman-key --populate archlinux
# pacman-key --refresh-keys
# pacman -Sc
# pacman -Syuu

GNOME KEYRING

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/GNOME_Keyring

At the end of files we add:

# vim /etc/pam.d/login
 session optional pam_gnome_keyring.so auto_start
# vim /etc/pam.d/passwd
 password optional pam_gnome_keyring.so

SENSORS

$ yaourt -S lm_sensors

URL: https://wiki.archlinux.org/